Lithium-ion batteries degrade as a result of usage or storage conditions, life cycle stresses, and the stability of the constituents of the cell (e.g., electrode materials, electrolyte). The degradation of a battery can be observed many different ways, both through non-destructive and destructive measurements. Non-destructive measurements include electrical characterization tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), charge/discharge cycling, DC internal resistance (DCIR), open circuit voltage (OCV), and cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the internal structure of the battery can be probed through ultrasonic transduction, neutron imaging, and X-ray microscopy. Destructive tests require disassembling the cell and directly observing changes in the electrode morphology.

    Non-destructive electrical testing

    Non-destructive structural testing

    Destructive analysis and testing